AskDefine | Define blackwash

Dictionary Definition

blackwash

Noun

1 an attack intended to ruin someone's reputation [syn: character assassination, assassination]
2 a mixture of calomel and limewater that is used on syphilitic sores [syn: black lotion]
3 a wash that colors a surface black

Verb

1 bring (information) out of concealment
2 color with blackwash

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Noun

  1. a whitewash victory over any team playing a New Zealand National sporting team (can also be referred to as a Blackout)
  2. a whitewash victory by the West Indies cricket team

Extensive Definition

The Wisden Trophy is awarded to the winner of the Test cricket series played between England and the West Indies. It was first awarded in 1963 to commemorate the hundredth edition of Wisden Cricketers' Almanack. Series are played in accordance with the International Cricket Council's future tours program, with varying lengths of time between tours. If a series is drawn then the country holding the Wisden Trophy retains it.
The trophy is named after the famous cricketing publisher Wisden and was presented by John Wisden & Co after gaining the approval of the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) and the West Indies Cricket Board (WICB). The Wisden Trophy is presented to the victorious team as a symbol of its victory, but then returns to the MCC Museum at Lord's. Since the 2000 Wisden Trophy series, the Malcolm Marshall Memorial Trophy has been awarded to the leading wicket taker in the series.
England currently hold the trophy, after beating the West Indies 3–1 to regain it in 2000; they have since successfully defended the trophy three times. The next series will be held in the West Indies in 2009 and will consist of four Test matches.

Trophies

Wisden Trophy

In 1963 John Wisden & Co. Ltd, with the approval of the MCC and the WICB, presented the first Wisden Trophy, to be contested in a similar manner to the Ashes.
The trophy is around 30 centimetres high, and a similar distance across its base. At the centre is an image of John Wisden. To Wisden's left is a smaller figure of a batsman taking guard, while to Wisden's right is a bowler in his delivery stride. Directly below Wisden is a plaque, on either side of which are the emblems of the English and West Indian teams. The plaque reads:

Malcolm Marshall Memorial Trophy

Named after the West Indian bowler Malcolm Marshall, this trophy has been awarded to the leading wicket taker of the series since 2000. The player who wins it also receives £1,360, but if he surpasses Marshall's record of 35 wickets set in 1988 he stands to earn £34,000. The table below lists all the players who have won this trophy.

History

See also: List of Wisden Trophy records for a full listing of all the Wisden Trophy records.

1963 Inaugural trophy

With the growing Caribbean following in England, the West Indies entered the series as one of the most popular touring nations. Lance Gibbs' 11 wickets at Old Trafford set up a commanding 10 wicket win for the West Indies. The second match at Lord's was chiefly remembered for its dramatic ending; all results were possible going into the final over of the match. England required eight runs to win but only had two wickets left. From the fourth ball of the over Derek Shackleton was run out, which meant that Colin Cowdrey had to come out with a broken arm with two balls of the match remaining. He did not have to face a ball, and the match ended in a draw. The third Test saw Fred Trueman claim 12 wickets ensuring England won by 217 runs. Charlie Griffith's 6/36 in the fourth and Conrad Hunte's 108 in the final Test meant the West Indies won the next two Tests and the series finished 3–1. The final Test saw a pitch invasion when Basil Butcher scored the winning runs for the West Indies.
As a result of the great success of this series, England's future home Test program was revised so that the West Indies could return in 1966, much earlier than originally planned. This was done by introducing "twin tours", in which two countries would each play three Tests against England in the course of a season.

1966 Garry Sobers' series

Garry Sobers was the captain for the West Indies, while England had three captains: Mike Smith (first Test), Cowdrey (second-fourth Test) and Brian Close (fifth Test) during the five Test series. The West Indies team was not as strong as in the previous series, but many of their deficiencies were glossed over by Sobers' exceptional all-round performance. He scored centuries in three Test matches and claimed five wicket innings hauls in two Tests.
The first Test went to the West Indies with England succumbing in both innings to Gibbs who claimed 10 wickets in the Test. Butcher’s 209 ensured the West Indies won the third to lead the series 2–0. The fourth Test saw Sobers' best performance, where he scored 174 runs and followed this up by taking 5/41 to give his team a 3–0 lead into the final Test. England gained a consolation victory, largely due to Tom Graveney’s 165 and a 128 tenth wicket partnership.
The main difference between the two teams was the outstanding all-round performance of Sobers, who scored 722 runs at an average of 103.14, as well as taking 20 wickets and taking 10 catches.

1967–69 Early series

This was the first of the Wisden Trophy series to take place in the West Indies. The series showed a more sinister side of the West Indies, with a riot occurring in the drawn second Test and the English team being attacked at the conclusion of the final Test. Despite these problems England were largely the better team, with Cowdrey’s leadership, Geoffrey Boycott’s batting and a weakened West Indian attack being the difference between the sides.
After a drawn first Test the second match was a game of two halves. England developed a 233 run lead at the half way stage and had the West Indies on 204/5 when Butcher was caught. This dismissal caused a riot and from this point onwards England struggled with the spin bowling of Sobers and Gibbs, narrowly avoiding defeat by two wickets. The third Test saw another drawn match due to the slow batting of the West Indies, taking over two days to score 349 runs which included a spell of four runs in one hour. England took a 1–0 lead after the fourth Test, in a game that they seemed least like winning. The win was mainly due to Sobers' decision to declare on 92/2 in the West Indies second innings. Good batting by Alan Knott and a 127 sixth wicket partnership ensured the final game ended in a draw as England maintained their 1–0 lead to win the series.
The 1969 tour was a three Test series. The captains were Ray Illingworth for England and Sobers for the West Indies. The West Indies had an ageing team and, with Sobers suffering a loss of form, were always the weaker side. England won the first Test with John Snow and David Brown claiming 13 wickets between them. A draw followed in Lord's, but England won the final match in a dramatic fashion. The West Indies in a seemingly strong position of 219/3 required 84 runs for victory. They suffered a late innings collapse however as Butcher, Sobers and Lloyd fell within 16 minutes, which ultimately led to England winning by 30 runs to win the series 2–0. It seemed that England would begin to dominate the West Indies, with many of the key West Indian players such as Butcher, Wes Hall and Charlie Griffith retiring in 1969. Illingworth would be the last England captain to win the Wisden Trophy for 31 years.

1973–74 West Indies revival

This three Test series saw the West Indies re-establish themselves as the superior team. They won the first Test at The Oval by 158 runs, with Clive Lloyd's 132 with the bat and Keith Boyce's bowling (147/11 in the match) being the main contributions to the win. The drawn match at Edgbaston was at risk of being abandoned when umpire Arthur Fagg threatened to withdraw after Kanhai disputed one of his decisions. The final Test match at Lord's was dominated by the West Indies, with the team posting a huge total of 652/8 before declaring, Kanhai, Sobers and Bernard Julien all getting centuries. England never looked liked matching this total, and were dismissed for 233 in the first innings and 193 in the second, losing by an innings and 226 runs. This was England's second biggest defeat in Test cricket. The series finished 2–0 to the West Indies, who regained the Wisden Trophy.
The 1974 series in the West Indies was of five Tests. The West Indian team were regarded as the better side, and for them to only draw the series was a surprise. After they won the first Test it had seemed that the series would become a one-sided contest. This Test was notable for a controversial Alvin Kallicharran run out that triggered protests. England managed to secure draws in the next three Tests, thanks to Dennis Amiss' 262 in the second Test and Keith Fletcher's 129 in the third, while rain prevented a result in the fourth Test. The last match at Queen's Park Oval was a close game, with England winning by 26 runs, primarily due to Tony Greig taking 13 wickets bowling off-spin and Boycott scoring 212 runs in the match. England thereby levelled the series, which finished 1–1.

1976 Viv Richards' series

England entered the series with great confidence, with English captain Greig saying that he had the players to make the West Indians "grovel". This threat proved to be an empty one, as it soon became apparent that England had no answer to Viv Richards' batting and Michael Holding's bowling.
The first two Tests ended in draws, but from the third Test onwards the West Indies took full control, with Richards scoring 524 runs in the last three Tests. He was supported by Holding, who took 25 wickets over these three Tests, including 5/17 in the third Test and 14/149 in the final Test. The West Indies won the series 3–0.
The series is mainly remembered for Richards' batting. He scored 829 runs at an average of 118.42 over four Test matches. In either the fourth or fifth Test in this series TMS commentator Brian Johnston allegedly said:
when describing the West Indian bowler Holding bowling to English batsmen Peter Willey. There are no records, according to Wisden, of Johnston or any other commentator saying this. Other sources have stated that Johnston had indeed said this and had prepared the line before saying it.

1980–81 A new era

The late 70s and 80s was a golden era for the West Indies cricket team, with the team dominating all forms of cricket. The West Indies came into the 1980 series after recently winning the 1979 Cricket World Cup. They were generally regarded as the best team at Test level, and would lose only eight Test matches during the 1980s.
Ian Botham captained the England team while Lloyd skippered the West Indies in this five Test series. In a series that was hampered by rain, the only match to produce a positive result was the first Test at Trent Bridge. It was a close contest, with a dramatic ending which saw six dropped catches and the West Indies requiring 208 runs in the final 8 hours of play. The West Indies achieved this target with 2 wickets in hand, largely due to Desmond Haynes' 64. England went to the West Indies for the 1981 five Test series. This became four Tests after the second Test abandonment caused by Robin Jackman's visa being revoked by the Guyanese Government due to his involvement with South Africa's apartheid regime.
The series was dominated by the West Indies bowlers Holding and Colin Croft, who claimed 41 wickets between them in the series. England suffered an innings defeat in the first Test, and lost the third by 298 runs as they failed to register an innings of over 250 in the first three Tests. Strong batting performances and rain enabled England to draw the final two Tests, and so the series ended 2–0 to the West Indies.

1984–86 "Blackwash" series

The "blackwash" series occurred in 1984 and 1985–86. The West Indies beat England 5–0 in both series in a whitewash that was dubbed "blackwash". The first blackwash occurred in England and the second in the West Indies. Instrumental in these wins were Richards' batting and the bowling partnership of Malcolm Marshall and Joel Garner, which claimed 105 of the 200 England wickets to fall in the two series. Many players from the West Indies had taken part in the so-called Supertests a few years earlier and as a result they were arguably fitter and better prepared due to having faced stronger opposition. The captains for these series were Lloyd and Richards for the West Indies, and David Gower, who had the ignominy of leading England to ten consecutive defeats against the men from the Caribbean.
The 1984 series began with Andy Lloyd being hit on the head, resulting in him being hospitalized. This would prove to be a common theme throughout the series, as the English batsmen struggled to cope with the West Indies bouncers. Whenever England threatened, a West Indian player would step up and take control of the match, as when Gordon Greenidge scored 214 after an England declaration to win the second Test. The series was decided at Old Trafford, where the West Indies gained an unassailable 3–0 lead. The final Test at The Oval saw the West Indies record the only whitewash by a visiting nation in a five Test series. This was the fifth whitewash in Test cricket and the first to be inflicted on England in England.
The 1985–86 series in the West Indies ended in another whitewash with the West Indies winning each Test comfortably, the closest match being a seven wicket victory. Like the previous series the English batsmen provided little resistance against the West Indian bowlers with only Gower averaging above 30. Poor performances from Botham and Mike Gatting's injury ensured an easy series win for the West Indies. England’s attitude also played a part in their defeat with big players such as Gower and Botham showing a certain reluctance to net training. The then chairman of selectors Peter May questioned the team's attitude and called for greater resolve, a view that seemed to be shared by the general public at the time.
The West Indies won the first two Tests in a similar manner with England struggling with the bowling of Patrick Patterson and Marshall. By the third Test, England’s morale had dipped and they suffered an innings defeat which was largely due to their third day's performance losing 15 wickets for 201. A ten wicket defeat followed in the fourth while Richards produced the fastest century in Test cricket in the final Test. He reached his hundred in only 56 balls to confirm the West Indies superiority. As a result the West Indies had won ten consecutive Tests against England, and were the second team after Australia to achieve multiple home whitewashes in five Test series.

1988 Summer of four captains

This tour saw the beginning of a bowling partnership between Courtney Walsh and Curtly Ambrose that would trouble batsmen across the world for the next 12 years. England, on the other hand, had entered the series with low expectations and confidence. This was reflected in their team selections, with 23 players being used during the series.
England had four captains in Gatting, John Emburey, Chris Cowdrey and Graham Gooch, but each Test ended in West Indian dominance. They won each match except the first Test, which was drawn because of rain, and the series finished 4–0. The West Indies pace attack was the main difference between teams with Marshall being the most dangerous bowler, taking 35 wickets at an average of 12.65. This included a 7/22 in the third Test which he bowled with a broken left hand. Marshall was supported by Ambrose's bowling which yielded 22 wickets. After this series both teams would go into decline. Many of the great West Indian players such as Richards and Marshall would soon retire, and their dominance of the Test stage was nearing its end.

1989–91 England close the gap

Throughout the late 70s and 80s, many of the series between the West Indies and England had been dominated by the West Indies who had won fourteen of the fifteen Tests, often by large margins. The next two series in 1989–90 season and 1991 would prove to be closer contests.
A 1989–90 series of two halves saw England close to taking a shock 2–0 lead in the series, only to be denied by a wet afternoon at Queens Park Oval. Injuries to their key bowler, Angus Fraser, and batsman, Gooch, changed the course of the series dramatically however, as the West Indies fought back to win the next two Tests, thanks to the pace attack of Ambrose and Ian Bishop. They eventually won the series 2–1. An infamous incident occurred in the fourth Test of the series, when Rob Bailey was given out by umpire Lloyd Barker, who had allegedly been intimidated by Richards' appeal.
Notable debutants in this series were Alec Stewart and Nasser Hussain, who both made their debuts in the first Test. Alec Stewart was not England's wicket-keeper in this Test series, as Jack Russell kept wicket.
A decline in the West Indies batting line-up coupled by the loss of Greenidge ensured this series would be a closer contest. The tour was Richards' last, as he retired at the end of the fifth Test. Graeme Hick and Mark Ramprakash made their debuts in the first Test at Headingley.
England won the first Test largely thanks to Gooch's 154 in the second innings. This innings was rated by Wisden as the third greatest Test innings ever. After the second Test had been drawn, the West Indies won the next two matches due to Ambrose's eight wickets in the third and Richie Richardson's century in fourth match. Phil Tufnell and Robin Smith played key roles in the final Test, as England won by five wickets after forcing the West Indies to follow-on for the first time in six years, to level the series 2–2. In this Test commentator Jonathan Agnew famously described Botham's hit wicket dismissal by saying:

1994 Lara enters the world stage

The series was characterised by the opening pair of Stewart and new England captain Michael Atherton, which provided the greatest resistance against the West Indian attack of Ambrose and Walsh. The pair scored 987 runs in the series while Ambrose ended the series with 26 wickets at an average of 19.96 and was awarded man of the series.
After England lost the first three Tests (which included a 46 all out in the second innings of the third Test) there was talk of another blackwash series. England secured a victory in the fourth Test however, with Stewart’s two centuries and Fraser’s eight wickets being the main contributors to the win. This was the first time in 59 years that a visiting nation had won at the Kensington Oval. The main highlight of the series was to come in the final Test at Antigua, where Brian Lara broke Sobers' Test world record score of 365 not out, set 36 years earlier, by scoring 375. Lara was congratulated by Sobers, who was present on the ground to see his record broken.
In the end Lara scored an exceptional 798 runs at an average of 99.75. Two months later Lara would go on to break the first-class batting record of 499 runs by scoring 501 not out against Durham at Edgbaston. Shivnarine Chanderpaul made his Test debut in the second Test of the series, when he made his maiden half-century. Chanderpaul was Lara's last batting partner when he made his record-breaking 375, scoring 75 not out himself and combining in a 219 fifth wicket partnership.

1995–98 Six Test series

Both teams were evenly matched, with the West Indies not the force they had been, and England on the rise. The key players for the West Indies were Lara, Walsh and Bishop while England had a strong opening pair of Atherton and Graham Thorpe plus the young Dominic Cork who would be decisive in England's two Test victories in this series.
The West Indies' inconsistent performances saw them dominate one Test, only to play poorly and lose the next. Bishop's and Walsh’s combined 26 wickets in the first and third Tests ensured the West Indies won these matches by commanding margins. Cork contributed greatly to England’s second and fourth Test victories, taking 7/43 in the second Test and a hat-trick in the fourth in claiming the wickets of Richardson (bowled), Junior Murray (LBW) and Carl Hooper (LBW). The remaining two Tests were dominated by the batsmen, with five centuries being scored. The series finished 2–2, with the West Indies retaining the trophy.
The men of the series were Atherton for England and Lara for the West Indies. The latter made 765 runs at an average of 85. Cork made his debut in the second Test, where he achieved the best bowling figures for an English debutant. Nick Knight's debut came in the fourth Test of series.
An ageing West Indian team relied increasingly on Ambrose and Walsh to provide wickets, while Lara was seen as the primary source of runs. Angus Fraser played an important role for England, and when his form dipped in the later Tests the side's performance suffered. The series started in a controversial fashion, with the first Test at Sabina Park being abandoned after the pitch was deemed to be too dangerous due to its highly irregular bounce. As a result of this abandoned match, an additional match was arranged with the series thereby being extended to six Tests. Two close matches followed, after which the teams were level at 1–1. England faded in the second half of the series. The West Indies scored two decisive victories, winning the fourth by 242 runs and the last by an even wider margin of an innings and 52 runs, to take the series 3-1.

2000 England regain the trophy

England dominated the 2004 series and claimed the first English whitewash in the Wisden Trophy's history. England won each Test comfortably, as the West Indian bowlers struggled to get wickets. Only Chris Gayle and Dwayne Bravo had bowling averages lower than 30. This whitewash meant that England had won seven consecutive Tests for the first time in 75 years. The series was the beginning of a run that would see England win the Ashes the following year. Andrew Flintoff was the leading performer for England, averaging 64.50 with the bat and claiming 14 wickets. Ashley Giles was the leading wicket taker in the series with 22. This series saw Ian Bell make his Test debut in the final Test of the series, where he compiled his maiden half-century. The main highlights for the West Indies were Chanderpaul's batting performance in scoring 437 runs at an average of 72.83, the highest in the series, and Bravo's 16 wickets.
With the recent retirement of Lara, Sarwan became the captain of the West Indies. Sarwan injured himself while fielding in the second Test, and the captaincy was given to Daren Ganga. Andrew Strauss was England skipper for the first Test, after which Vaughan returned from injury to lead for the remaining Tests.
England were largely the better team and, if not for the resilient batting of Chanderpaul, they would have won by an even larger margin. The West Indies suffered greatly from his absence in the second Test, losing the match by an innings and 283 runs, their biggest defeat in Test history. England retained the Wisden trophy at Old Trafford by taking an unbeatable 2–0 lead, They ultimately won the series 3–0.
Chanderpaul, who was named the West Indian player of the series, scored 446 runs at an average of 148.66. Bravo also impressed with his all-round performance in claiming 6 wickets, scoring 291 runs and taking 7 catches. England saw the emergence of Matthew Prior, who became the first English wicket-keeper to score a Test century on debut. Monty Panesar claimed the most wickets (23) and received the award of the Englishman of the series, while Ryan Sidebottom took 16 wickets.

Summary of results

See also: List of Wisden Trophy records for a full listing of all the Wisden Trophy records.
A team must win a series to hold the Wisden Trophy. A drawn series results in the previous holders retaining the trophy. To date, a total of 21 Wisden Trophy series have been played, with West Indies winning 12 and England 6. The remaining 3 series were drawn, with West Indies retaining the Wisden Trophy on each occasion (1973-74, 1991 and 1995). In the series' 44 year history the Wisden Trophy has changed hands on three occasions (1968,1973 and 2000) with England regaining the trophy twice (1968 and 2000) while the West Indies regained it in 1973.
98 Test matches have been played, with West Indies winning 42 times, England 26 times, and 30 matches being drawn. Brian Lara is the top scorer in the Wisden Trophy series with 2983 runs, while Curtly Ambrose is the leading wicket taker with 164 wickets.

Match venues

The series usually alternates between England and West Indies, and within each country each of the matches is held at the following grounds.
In England the grounds used have been Old Trafford (since 1963), Lord's (1963), Edgbaston (1963), Headingley (1963), The Oval (1963), Trent Bridge (1966) and Riverside Ground (2007).
In the West Indies the grounds used have been Queen's Park Oval (since 1968), Sabina Park (1968), Kensington Oval (1968), Bourda (1968) and Antigua (1981).

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